Biographic Outline: Anna Wallis Suh

Anna Wallis, 1930Anna Wallis, 1937Anna Wallis, 1938
Ann Wallis c. 1930, Korea, 1937, Nashville, TN, and 1938, Korea
(NEA Telephoto), (Scarritt College Voice), (Taiwha Christian Community Center)

b. 1900, d. 1969?, American, Methodist missionary, educator, radio announcer/propagandist
aka: Anna Wallace Suhr

This page is a scratch pad for my work on the Wikipedia entry. My original line of research suffered from the lack of agreement over "Seoul City Sue's" given name in published reports from the Federal Government and print media. For quite some time, I labored under the assumption that it was "Anna Wallace Suhr". Over the 2009 Easter weekend, I changed tack and searched literature for the spelling "Ann (and Anna) Wallis Suh". This led me to a number of newspaper articles from 1950 to 1953 which provided background on and leads to family and education, as well as a grainy photo from her time as a missionary in 1930's Korea. This resulted in a considerable number of edits to the text and footnotes. Someone referenced the original, grossly inaccurate page for a school research project, so I retained a link in case anyone checked the student's footnotes.

Anna Wallis Suh (1900 - 1969), the woman generally associated[1] with the nickname Seoul City Sue, was a Methodist missionary, educator, and North Korea propaganda radio announcer to United States forces during the Korean War.

Contents

Early life

Scarritt College

Born Anna Wallis to Albert B and M J Wallis, 1900, in Lawrence County, Arkansas. She was the youngest of 6 children.[2]

Anna's parents died when she was young; her mother passed away some time between the 1900 and 1910 Census,[3][4] and her father in October, 1914.[5] Subsequently, she relocated to Oklahoma with a sister.[6] Anna attended the Southeastern State Teachers College, in Durant, Oklahoma, before transferring to the Scarritt College for Christian Workers, an institution dedicated to the training of Methodist missionaries, in Nashville, Tennessee. In 1930, Ann completed a Bachelor of Arts degree program.[7]

Korean Mission & China

That same year, she was selected for a mission to Korea by the Southern Methodist Conference.[8] There, she initially taught at a Methodist school.[9] By the early 1930s, the Japanese colonial administration had largely banned foreigners from Christian proselytizing, and most Christian missions focused on education, medicine, and care for the indigent.[10], She may have returned to the US in 1935 to visit a sister.[11] In late 1936, she was appointed to serve at the Seoul Social Evangelistic Center, and in February 1937, visited Scarritt College during a missionary furlough.[12] In a move that may have reflected increasingly harsh Japanese measures against foreign missionaries in the late 30s,[13][14] Anna relocated to China to join the staff of the Shanghai American School (SAS) in 1938. There she met Suh Kyoon Chul, who was hired to teach Korean and assist in school administration. She was dropped from the rolls of the missionary service after they married.[A1] She developed an interest in Korean politics, eventually taking up her husband's leftist views.[15][16][17] A number of other Caucasian women on the faculty were also married to Asian men.[18] The cosmopolitan Shanghai International Settlement and French Concession were likely a more accepting environment for the Suhs than homogeneous 1940s Korea would later prove to be.[19] In 1939, she visited San Francisco in an unsuccessful attempt to secure a US passport for her husband.[20]

Sino-Japanese War

Americans in Shanghai began to depart that same year, slowly as tensions rose in the environs of the city, then en masse shortly before the US and Japan officially went to war. SAS remained open until February 1943,[21] when the remaining foreign staff were forced into the Chapei Civilian Relocation Center, a short distance away in the northern suburbs.[22] This internment camp, one of several in and around Shanghai, occupied a three story dormitory on the grounds of Great China University (now East China Normal University), most of which was damaged or destroyed during the 1937 Battle of Shanghai.[23] Whether as a part of the remaining school staff or on her own, Anna also entered the Chapei center at this time, while her husband may have remained free as a colonial subject of Japan. During the internment, the SAS staff and parents took advantage of the school's books that had followed them to organize classes for the children. Supplies with which to maintain the internees grew short towards the end of the war, and a number of women married to citizens of Axis powers or neutral countries were released in late 1944. It is possible that Anna was among these.[24]

With Anna's formal release from detention at the end of World War II,[25] she joined the staff of the reconstituted SAS for the 1945-46 school year.[26]

Korean War

Unable to continue earning a sufficient living in post-war Shanghai,[27] she and her husband returned to liberated Korea, where she tutored children at the US Diplomatic Mission School in Seoul. Her employment was terminated after her husband was investigated for left wing activities.[28] Shortly thereafter, North Korea invaded the South in June, 1950.

The Korean People's Army occupied Seoul three days after the start of hostilities. The speed of the advance caught the majority of residents by surprise and unprepared to evacuate, in part due to ROK radio propaganda rather at odds with the actual situation.[29][30] Anna and her husband remained as well, perhaps because he was unwilling to abandon a school for indigent boys that he administered. During a July 10th meeting in Seoul that included 48 to 60 members of the ROK National Assembly, the couple pledged their loyalty to the North Korean regime.[31][32]

Under Dr. Lee Soo, an English instructor from Seoul University, Anna began announcing for North Korean "Radio Seoul" from the former Korean Broadcasting System studios with daily programs from 9:30 to 10:15 pm local time,[33] first heard as early as July 18th. The Suhs had been relocated to a temporary home near the station.[34] Suh's defenders gave the dull tone of her broadcasts as proof that she was being forced to make them.[35]

Her initial scripts suggested that American soldiers return to their corner ice cream stands, criticized the USAF bombing campaign, and reported names recovered from the dog tags of dead American soldiers to a background of soft music.[36][37] The G.I.s gave her various nicknames, including Rice Ball or Rice Bowl Maggie, Rice Ball Kate, and Seoul City Sue.[38][39] The later name stuck, likely derived from "Sioux City Sue",[40] the title of a song initially made popular by Zeke Manners[41][42][43] from 1946. Through the rest of the summer of 1950, her reports would announce the names of recently captured US airmen, marines, and soldiers,[44][45][46] threaten new units arriving in country,[47] welcome warships by name as they arrived on station,[48] or taunt African American soldiers regarding their limited civil rights at home.[49] Her monotone on-air delivery and the lack of popular music programming evidently left Ann's broadcasts less enjoyable for her intended audience than German and Japanese English language radio shows during World War II.[50]

Radio Seoul went off the air at the start of a "Sue" program during an August 13th air strike on communications and transportation facilities in the city, as a B-26 bomber dropped 200 lbs fragmentation bombs adjacent to the transmitter. The station came back on the air a week or two later.[51] The Suhs were evacuated north by truck after the Inchon landings, a few days before US forces entered the city.[52][53][54] UN POWs at Camp 12 near Pyongyang were indoctrinated by Mr. & Mrs. Suh in Feb, '51, after which the POWs were directed to continue indoctrinating each other, with Korean supervision.[55]

Later life

Fellow defector Charles Robert Jenkins made several claims about Suh in his book The Reluctant Communist that have not been independently verified. He reported that, some time after the war, she was put in charge of English language publications for the Korean Central News Agency. He wrote that he saw her in a photo for a 1962 propaganda pamphlet called "I Am A Lucky Boy", dining with Larry Allen Abshier, a US Army deserter and defector. Jenkins reported meeting her briefly in 1965 at the "foreigners only" section of the No. 2 Department Store in Pyongyang. Jenkins also stated that he was told in 1972 that Suh had been shot as a South Korean double agent in 1969.[56]

Footnotes

  1. ^ Franklin, 1996
  2. ^ US Census, 1900
  3. ^ Ibid.
  4. ^ US Census, 1910
  5. ^ Arkansas Certification of Death, #00765
  6. ^ Mt. Pleasant News, Oct 3, 1950
  7. ^ Scarritt College Commencement, 1930
  8. ^ Denton Record Chronicle, March 7, 1930
  9. ^ Psywarrior.com
  10. ^ Christianity In Korea
  11. ^ New York Passenger Lists, Sept. 9, 1935
  12. ^ Scarritt College Voice, Feb, 1937
  13. ^ United Methodist Church, General Board of Global Ministries
  14. ^ Christianity In Korea
  15. ^ Edwards
  16. ^ Lech, Raymond B., page 118
  17. ^ Portland Free Herald, Oct 4, 1950
  18. ^ Mills
  19. ^ Choi
  20. ^ Coshocton Tribute, August 30, 1950
  21. ^ See Shanghai International Settlement
  22. ^ Mills
  23. ^ Captives of Empire
  24. ^ Ibid
  25. ^ National Archives, World II Prisoners of War Data File
  26. ^ Mills
  27. ^ Coshocton Tribute
  28. ^ New York Times, Aug 28, 1950
  29. ^ National Security Archive at George Washington University
  30. ^ Eyewitness: Korean War Starts
  31. ^ Edwards, page 79
  32. ^ Eyewitness: 1950: War of Unification
  33. ^ Corpus Christi Times, September 12, 1950
  34. ^ Portland Free Herald, Oct 4, 1950
  35. ^ Time Magazine, September 18, 1950
  36. ^ Yuma Daily Sun, 10 August, 1950
  37. ^ Martin, page 76-77
  38. ^ Senate Permanent Subcommittee: Executive Sessions
  39. ^ Senate Permanent Subcommittee: Korean War Atrocities
  40. ^ Song: Sioux City Sue
  41. ^ Obituary, Zeke Manners
  42. ^ Sample: Sioux City Sue
  43. ^ New York Times, Aug 09, 1950
  44. ^ Wosser, Joseph Lloyd, Lt. (USMC)
  45. ^ From Korea to Kosovo
  46. ^ 1st MAW History
  47. ^ Stocks, Floyd P.
  48. ^ Schratz, Paul R.
  49. ^ Lipsitz, George
  50. ^ Corpus Christi Times
  51. ^ New York Times, Aug 14, 1950
  52. ^ New York Times, Oct 04, 1950
  53. ^ The Stars & Stripes, October 5, 1950
  54. ^ Chillicothe Constitution Tribute, March 8, 1952
  55. ^ Lech, page 118-121
  56. ^ Charles Robert Jenkins, page 115-116
  57. ^ Fighter Pilot Songs
  58. ^ Citizenship issues

References

    >Note: Wikipedia links are disabled

Twelfth Census of the United States, 1900; Strawberry, Lawrence, Arkansas; roll T623 64, page 10B, line 88 . Retrieved on 2009-04-27

Thirteenth Census of the United States, 1910; Strawberry, Lawrence, Arkansas; roll T624 55, page 9B, line 77 . Retrieved on 2009-04-27

  • Scarritt College Commencement, Virginia D. Laskey Research Library, Scarritt-Bennett Center, Nashville, TN: Scarritt College for Christian Workers, 1930 

Fifteenth Census of the United States, 1930; Carnegie, Caddo, Oklahoma; roll 1894, page 13B, line 90 . Retrieved on 2009-04-27

  • Scarritt College Voice, IX (1 ed.), Virginia D. Laskey Research Library, Scarritt-Bennett Center, Nashville, TN: Scarritt College for Christian Workers, 1937, "Recent news from Ann Wallis ('30) tells of her new appointment at the Social Evangelistic Center at Seoul, Korea. She and Margaret Billingsly have rooms at the Center, but take their meals across the yards. The settlement is similar to our settlement houses, with its clinic, kindergarten, etc. Ann's particular task, among many others, is teaching in the night school and helping with the clubs and English classes during the day." 
  • Edwards, Paul M. (2000). To Acknowledge A War: the Korean War in American memory. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 79. ISBN 0313310211. 
  • Lech, Raymond B. (2000). Broken Soldiers. University of Illinois Press. pp. 118-121. ISBN 0252025415. 
  • Mills, Angie; Phoebe White Wentworth (1997). Fair is the Name: The Story of the Shanghai American School, 1912-1950. Los Angeles: Shanghai American School Association. 
  • Choi, Hyaeweol (2003). "An American Concubine in Old Korea: Missionary Discourse on Gender, Race, and Modernity". Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies (University of Nebraska Press) 24 (3): 134-161. "Wagner's novel might have been inspired by an actual event in Korea -- an American woman falling in love with a Korean man. In her correspondence dated May 24, 1948, she wrote, 'I've forgotten, but of course you remember Allyeu [Wagner's brother-in-law]. I still laugh when I remember how shocked Allyeu was in Seoul at Ann Wallace and her Korean sweetheart. By the way, did you see Ann while you were in Seoul? She evidently has had a pretty tough time, but what could she expect?". 
  • Kim Young Sik (29). "Korean War Starts". Eyewitness: A North Korean Remembers. Archived from the original on 2009-05-03. http://www.webcitation.org/5gU3eywo5. Retrieved on 2009-05-03. "June 29 - N. Korean Army takes Seoul - It is weird. We see pictures of N Korean soldiers marching in Seoul and yet Seoul Radio is still claiming some fantastic victories!! How can this be?" 
  • Martin, Bradley K. (2004). Under The Loving Care Of The Fatherly Leader: N. Korea and the Kim Dynasty. Macmillan. ISBN 0312322216. 
  • United States Congress, Senate (1-2003), 83-1: Executive Sessions of The Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations of The Committee on Government Operations, Volume 3, 3 (S. Prt 107-84 ed.), Washington, D.C.: USGPO, pp. 2025 
  • United States Congress, Senate (1954), Korean War atrocities: hearing before the Subcommittee on Korean War Atrocities of the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations of the Committtee on Government Operations, Washington, D.C.: USGPO, pp. 48 
  • Wosser, Joseph Lloyd, Lt. (USMC) (2). "Transcribed letters re: Seoul City Sue". Death Rattlers, Marine Fighter Squadron 323 (VMF-323) (Thomas "TC" Crouson). Archived from the original on 2009-05-03. http://www.webcitation.org/5gU7ZO9wg. Retrieved on 2009-05-03. "Sept 9 At sea. Today I had another CAP so it was just another three hours on the parachute. Capt Booker was on Seoul City Sue's program today so he must be OK if they are advertising the fact that he is a POW." 
  • Schratz, Paul R. (2000). Submarine Commander. University Press of Kentucky. p. 304. ISBN 0813109884. 
  • Lipsitz, George (1995). A Life in the Struggle: Ivory Perry and the Culture of Opposition. Temple University Press. p. 56. ISBN 1566393213. 
  • Jenkins, Charles Robert (2008). The Reluctant Communist: My Desertion, Court-Martial, and Forty-Year Imprisonment in North Korea. University of California Press. pp. 115-116. ISBN 0520253337. 
  • "asiatrails" (27). "Forum: Air Force Life, Fighter Pilot Songs". F-16.net. http://www.f-16.net/index.php?name=PNphpBB2&file=viewtopic&p=114354&sid=f6deec197f91d89b44cd17756f1c4e8c#114354. Retrieved on 2009-05-02. "Seoul City Sue (Tune - Sioux City Sue): I drove a herd of oxen down, till I reached old Bong Chong Way..." 
  • Based on US law in the 1930s, Anna Wallis lost her US citizenship when she became Mrs. Anna Wallis Suh, citizenship for a married woman up to that point almost exclusively based on that of her husband, particularly if they lived in his native land. Mr. Suh, as well as all other native residents of Korea and Taiwan, were nationals of the Empire of Japan, which recognized itself as a multi-ethnic state. Anna may not have recognized her situation until the 1939 visit to San Francisco to secure a US passport for her husband. In addition to her status as a Japanese national, the US had almost completely frozen Asian immigration with the Immigration Act of 1924.

    A somewhat arbitrary application of Japanese and US law would continue to dog Anna over the following years. When the Japanese interned most ethnic Europeans within the Empire during WW II, it isn't yet clear to me whether she was sent to the Chapei Relocation Center, or entered it willingly, since she was theoretically not a foreign national. Later, during the US military occupation of southern Korea, an attempt was made to restore her US citizenship, an effort which fell through for unknown reasons. It is possible, but not certain, that she became a national of the ROK as the wife of Mr. Suh. In any case, although US forces sought her out after retaking Seoul in September, 1950, officials recongized that Mrs. Suh likely could not be charged with treason by the US.
  • Links regarding Japanese Empire nationality:
    - http://krieger.jhu.edu/magazine/spsum06/pages/f2citizen.html, "During the colonial period, Koreans were regarded as Japanese nationals, both in Korea and Japan,..."
    - http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/topic,463af2212,488edfb96e38,49749cfd41, "While Koreans had been citizens during the occupation period, they would eventually lose Japanese citizenship after the Second World War."
    - John Lie, Multiethnic Japan, Harvard University Press, 2004, ISBN 0674013581, page 122

    Links regarding citizenship of women born in the US:
    - http://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/1998/summer/women-and-naturalization-1.html
    - http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~tncampb2/_sgg/mlm2_1.htm

    Links specific to Anna's case:
    - Portland Free Herald October 4, 1950
    - Coshocton Tribute, August 30, 1950


Comments:
The narrative above is based on my reading thus far. An edited version can be found at Wikipedia, which gave body to what was an empty link from another Wikipedia Korea reference. Due to copyright and citation requirements for Wikipedia entries, I'm retaining this page as my personal repository for on-going research.

My initial curiousity was a result of my wife and I overdosing on "M*A*S*H" reruns during 2006. I was well aware of such WW II personalities as Axis Sally, Lord Haw Haw, and Tokyo Rose, as well as Vietnam's Hanoi Hannah. Upon finding that Seoul City Sue was a real person, not just TV fiction, I wanted to know "the rest of the story."

Living on an island in the middle of the Pacific has its charms, but easy access to research materials isn't one of them. Most of these references are merely touched upon online, await followup at UH-Manoa, and whenever I can take time out during travel to the mainland.

I'd appreciate any information or leads you can provide. I accept email here, and posted material at MHPCC, 550 Lipoa Pkwy, Kihei, HI 96753, USA, Attn: C. Holmberg


Old Citation list, deleting those which already been incorporated above:

[1]

[2] Broadcast recording, http://www.lib.utulsa.edu/speccoll/collections/kvoo/index.htm ... a recording of Seoul City Sue broadcast. Working with U Tulsa to make a copy. Recordings of broadcasts weren't subject to copyright in the US until the late '60's. However, according the the Library Of Congress, this is a grey area (512kB PDF), so I'll need to contact KVOO's parent, Journal Broadcast Group for permission to sample around 30 seconds for public dissemmination.

[3] Edwards, Paul M., To acknowledge a war, ISBN: 0313310211 page 79
"remained in seoul to pledge loyalty to north. husband held leftist views which she adopted." At meeting with 48 members of national assembly, end of july, '50.UH-Manoa Hamilton Library, DS918 .E39 2000. Follow up: At the suggestion of an Army historian, I read the book's "Sue" citation during a library visit in New York City, of all places. Unfortunately, there are no footnotes, rendering the bibliography less useful than it could be. Subsequently, Dr. Edwards responsded to my query, sharing the following sources: [...] the Psy War collection at the Center for the Study of the Korean War that mentioned her name. [...] Time Magazine August 21, 1950, vol. LVI and New York Times, August 16, and 21, 1950. Now, if I could only find what their sources were!

[4] EUSAK WD, Aug 50 Summ, p. 52: 1st Cav Div Arty WD, 21 Aug 50; New York Herald Tribune, August 18, 1950 New York Times, August 16 and 21, 1950. Seoul City Sue began to make propaganda broadcasts at this time. Members of the 588th Military Police Company first heard her about 10 August. http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/books/korea/20-2-1/sn19.htm

[5]

[6]

[7]

[8]

[9]

[10]

[11]

[12]

[13]For the purpose of obtaining a photograph, what would REALLY help is a copy of the school year book (The Columbian) for the class of 1938, 39, 40, or 41.

New York Times:
[14] Aug 09, 1950, Red Broadcaster Dubbed 'Seoul City Sue' by G.I.'s
[15] Aug 14, 1950, Bombers Silence Seoul Radio
[16] Aug 21, 1950, 'Seoul City Sue' to Get Reply From G.I. Radios
[17] Aug 22, 1950, U.N. Forces Firm
[18] Aug 25, 1950, Seoul Voice Identified
[19] Aug 28, 1950, Missionaries Say 'Seoul City Sue' Is Ann Suhr, U.S. Wife of Korean
[20] Oct 04, 1950, Enemy 'Doctored' G.I. Broadcasts

[21] Photo: soldiers "catching up on news from Seoul City Sue", http://www.cacti35th.org/photos/phpslideshow.php?directory=cuthrell&currentPic=7

[22]

[23]


[24]

[25]

[26]

[27]

[28] Clark, Donald, a lecture (link now broken) on the pre-war western community, which is also a book: Living Dangerously in Korea: the Western Experience 1900-1950 (EastBridge, 2003), Currently reviewing book. Also see one of Mr. Clark's posts to a news group:

The richest archives for Pyongyang as a mission station are to be found at the Presbyterian Historical Society, 425 Lombard Street, in Philadelphia. The records of the Catholic mission in Pyongyang are kept at the Maryknoll archives on the edge of Ossining, New York. These archives are voluminous and give as much detail as anyone could possibly want, not only of the missionary work but also of the Korean church communities.

[29]

[30] Ingerson, Vera Frances (b. 1890). Papers. 1916-1965. 1.5 ft. http://libweb.uoregon.edu/speccoll/guides/women/mission.html
Vera Frances Ingerson was a Presbyterian mission station nurse in Syenchun, Korea from 1916 to 1942, then a teacher at the Girl's Academy in Syenchun. The collection includes letters, diaries from 1916 and 1965, reports, photos, and mementos. (Ax 516) .... Ms. Ingerson may not be the best reference, as I get the feeling the Presbyterians and Methodists didn't necessarily work in the same towns. However, as I saw in my high school years overseas, expats will tend to find (and talk about) each other. Follow up: as I being to dig into Presbyterian and Methodist sources, I'm finding that the two groups did cooperate, and in the case of the Seoul Social Evangelistic Center, ran the mission together.

[31]

[32] Korean Mission Field. v. 2 (1905) - 37 (1941) (Located in Special Collections).
http://web2.ctsnet.edu/ref/periodicals/periodicals.htm
Columbia Theological Seminary
701 Columbia Drive
P.O. Box 520
Decatur, GA 30031
404 378-8821
404 377-9696 (fax)
www.CTSnet.edu

[33]

[34] Laurence, Edna. Papers. 1905-1954. 1 folder.
http://libweb.uoregon.edu/speccoll/guides/women/mission.html
Edna Lawrence was a nurse with the Presbyterian Mission Hospital in Taegu, Korea. The collection includes miscellaneous letters and papers about Presbyterian missions in Korea. (A 205) ... I believe the Methodists missions were primarily in what's now North Korea, far from Taegu.

[35] Methodist Missionary Society ... need to find what their research policy is. Follow up: as it turns out, relatively straight forward.

[36]

[37] Smith, Lura McLane. (b. 1885) Papers. 1952-1973. 1 folder.
http://libweb.uoregon.edu/speccoll/guides/women/mission.html
Lura McLane Smith was a Presbyterian missionary teacher to Korea. The collection contains material about foreign missionaries in Korea. See also the Roy K. Smith Papers (Ax 706). (A 293)

[38] Terrell, Grace.
http://libweb.uoregon.edu/speccoll/guides/women/mission.html
Letters Received. 1931-1966. 258 letters.
Grace Terrell was a benefactor of Emma W. Wilson, a Methodist missionary in Tientsin, China, and Seoul, Korea, and of several Chinese and Korean students in America. The letters are from the students Terrell helped. (Ax 264) Follow up: per a news clipping I've found, if it's true that Ann worked at "Ehwa Womans College" in Seoul during the 30's, this might be a promising lead.

[39]

[40]

[41]

[42]

[43] Zellers, Larry (b. 1922, d. 2007), In Enemy Hands: A Prisoner in North Korea, University Press of Kentucky, 1999. This citation will probably be deleted. One source (PDF) claims that Mr. Zellers was in some way acquainted with Ms. Suh. Unfortunately, this book doesn't discuss her. Larry passed after I began compiling this page, which reminds me to get moving if I want to take advantage of authoritative sources.


[44]

[45] PHOTO: Second floor of Chapei center, http://www.captives-of-empire.com/wst_page5.php
[46] PHOTO: The Chapei area near Shanghai was heavily damaged in 1937 during the Sino-Japanese War. http://www.japan-guide.com/a/shanghai/image.html?96
[47] PHOTOs: JODK/KBS facilities, http://museum.kbs.co.kr/exhibition/exhibition04.php
[48]

[50] BOOK: Thompson, Reginald, Cry Korea, Macdonald, 1951, page 76, The tall block of the Broadcasting Station had disappeard, and Lionel's chances of tracing 'Seoul City Sue', which, he said, would be a 'scoop', seemed remote.
[51]

[52]

[53]

[54] EMAIL: Leck, Greg, regarding Anna's time in Shanghai.
[55] BIBLIOGRAPHY: SASChina, which includes...
[56] RESEARCH: delve into the records at archivegrid.org, searching on "Shanghai American School" (including quotes), methodist missionaries korea, etc.
[57] RECORDS: Phoebe White Wentworth Collection of Shanghai American School History, photos, yearbooks, school newspapers, etc: http://webtext.library.yale.edu/xml2html/divinity.132.con.html
[] BOOK: Riley, John W., The Reds take a city; the Communist occupation of Seoul, with eyewitness accounts., New Brunswick, Rutgers University Press [1951], Call # 951.9 R45 - does he discuss the personalities pledging loyalty to the DPRK? Follow up: the book makes no mention of Anna or the loyalty pledge meeting.
[58] BOOK: Sawyer, Robert K., Military advisors in Korea; KMAG in peace and war, U.S. Govt. Print. Office [1962], Call # r 951.9 U2532m - on the off chance they discuss pre-war personalities in Seoul.
[59] PHOTO: Bando Hotel, Seoul, ROK. Built during the Japanese occupation, housed the US Diplomatic Mission until the NK invasion. http://mishalov.com/korea369/pictures/korea369-56.jpg
[60] WEB SITE: Henry Rezac has been researching Ms. Wallis/Wallace's life for a number of years. Unfortunately, an email to him was returned with a error that his box is full. The text references a NK film from the 1982 that may have included (or referenced) Ms. Wallis. After a bit of on line search, the reviews focused on the currently better known Charles Robert Jenkins. http://www.koreanwar.org/html/newsletter_september_1_2006.html, item #11. Follow up: Henry replied to my email (7/2007), and reports that his project is stalled.
[61] FILM: Nameless Heros, summary, and discussion. Actors include the American defector Charles Jenkins, but rumored to include/reference Ms. Suhr. It's a twenty hour series, mostly in Korean. I'm not sure if I have the will to sit through the whole thing, or go through the hassle needed to obtain it, if I'm not pretty sure it will include either the voice or visage of her. Follow up: If what Mr. Jenkins was told is true, Mrs. Suhr wasn't alive when this mini-series was shot. If she were, she'd have been in her mid-eighties. In any case, his memoir didn't mention her as part of the production.
[62]
[63]
[64]
Sources for N. Korean propaganda?
The Univ. of Durham's collection: http://www.asiamap.ac.uk/collections/collection.php?ID=7&Query=monograph&Order=0&pp=15&View=0&Level=Child
Or, Jin Yong Seon's museum: http://www.iht.com/articles/2008/05/01/asia/leaflet.php


[] VISIT: During a mainland vacation, I hope I can negotiate an arrangment to photograph relevent pages from the 1939 SAS yearbook held at:
http://www.thirdstbooks.com/ybother.html
3st Book Exchange
1615 3rd St
(downtown) Marysville WA 98270
has a copy of the 1939 Shanghai American School "The Columbian"
Store owner "Darilee"?

[] WEB SITE: http://www.psywarrior.com/NKoreaH.html
former missionary schoolteacher in Korea from 1930-1938

[] BOOK: The Bruce Web: A Genealogical Study of Bruce and Related Families Descending from James Bruce of Virginia, Born 1768
By Thomas Allen Bruce
Compiled by Thomas Allen Bruce
Published by Thomas Allen Bruce, 1984
Original from the University of Wisconsin - Madison
Also available at the Missouri History Museum St Louis, MO 63112
Page 111: As they were ready to return, Wallace had leave cancelled and was ordered to Korea for 18 more months. He was near Seoul when a secret mission was sent into the beleagured [sic] city to rescue "Seoul City Sue". Now, THAT is a story that's coming from 'way out in left field.

[] WEB SITE: http://sextant.cnu.edu/Waltrip.htm This is the first of a number of instances I'm starting to find where this page is being used as a reference by secondary/college students for their reports. Since they include the URL for the instructor to check, that's fine as far as it goes. But, what I'd really like to see is for one of them to take advantage of the fine university system libraries to check the references my references are citing. During the Korean War, there seemed to be some confusion over exactly where in the US Ms. Suh came from.

Passenger Manifest: List of United States Citizens SS Europa, sailing from Southhampton, 4th September, 1935, arriving at port of New York, September 9th, 1935 Passenger 18, Wallis, Ann, 35 years, female, single, born Jul 31st 1900 in Jesup, Ark., US residence Carnegie Okla. Follow up: Based on US Census records, she would have been visiting one of her older sisters, Ruth, who brought her to Oklahoma as a teen after their parents died.

Missionary Yearbook of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. By Methodist Episcopal Church, South. Board of Missions, Board of Missions, Nashville, Tenn. : Board of Missions, 1927-1940; on Google Books, the tags include Seoul and Korea, so this might be a good reference... if I can find a copy. All of the libraries listed in Worldcat are 4000+ miles away. Duke University has the full collection on microform, for example.

Records of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. Board of Missions, 1891-1940 (inclusive) by Methodist Episcopal Church, South. Board of Missions; Yale University Library, archival material in 20 folders.


Newspaper Dispatches

Denton Record Chronicle, 07 March, 1930
20 Young Women to Be Consecrated at Woman's Missionary Council March 13-18
Amarillo, March 7
Twenty young women will be consecrated as foreign missionaries and deaconesses at the meeting of the Woman's Missionary Council of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, at Amarillo, March 19-18.
The Consecration service, presided over by Bishop John M. Moore of Dallas, will conclude the council's twentieth annual meeting. The young women are members of the June graduating class of Scarritt College Methodist school at Nashville.
Those who are to become foreign missionaries will sail in the fall. They are:
Miss Sarah Glenn, Chester, S.C., to China; Miss Robbie Lee Leggett, Allen, Miss., to China; Miss Althea May Cronk, McAllen, Texas, to Japan; Miss Susie Peach Foster, Branlley, Ala., to Korea; Miss Ann Wallis, Hartshorne (Holdenville?), Okla., to Korea;...

Yuma Daily Sun, 10 August, 1950 US 8th Army Headquarters, Korea, Aug 10 ...The woman, nicknamed "Seoul City Sue" by troops of the 158th Military Police Company, has been heard by both the Army and the US information Service... Whe berated the US Air Force for the "promiscuous bombing of schools and the strafing of farmers" and urged American soldiers "to return to the corner ice cream store in the States."

Corpus Christi Times, September 12, 1950 With US Forces Korea (UP) ...She plays no records like those of Tokyo Rose, the sweet talker for the Japanese who kept the Pacific GI's in listening music. No Passion She talks in a monotone. Her voice is icy. She exudes the passion of a well boiled vegetable.... Seoul City Sue comes on the air from 9:30 to 10:15 PM, Korean time. The bulk of the program consists of "news" report containing such sentences as, "the dream of the entire peasantry is being carried out in the wake of the glorious advance of the peoples army... the war has neither purpose nor interest for those being sacrificed as cannon fodder... the barbarous acts of the American generals pose a threat not only to the rest of the world, but to themselves." ... Honey, knock off the chatter and get a disk jockey.

Portland Free Herald October 4, 1950 Seoul City Sue (cont from page 1) ...sent to the Orient 20 years ago as a Methodist missionary. Funds to finance her work were raised at church rummage sales and pie suppers. She has been described as a plain woman, in her middle forties. She was married to a Korean after she had employed him as a teacher of Korean and then as secretary. A Korean relative relative of Mrs. Suhr has told investigators she had "moved to a radio station," but could not say for sure she actually was making the nightly broadcasts heard early in the war. Find Broadcast Drafts When officers searched Mrs. Suhr's temporary home near the station, they found large quantities of Communist propaganda and drafts of broadcasts. In the intelligence reports, the case came under the heading of "treason", but there was doubt in US Embassy circles that the charge, if ever made formally, would stick. The sources said Mrs. Suhr lost her citizenship during World War II, when she chose to stay in Korea after Pearl Harbor and took the oath of allegiance to Japan. After US authorities entered Korea in 1945, proceedings were started to restore her citizenship. Then they were dropped... Her husband often has been identified with obscure leftist movements in postwar Korea. He was held by police a short time in 1949. Mrs. Suhr padded the family income by teaching in the American School in Seoul for a time. She was not rehired after her husband was arrested. According to sources here, she came to Korea in the middle 1930s as a teacher in the American Christian Women's College. After her marriage she was dismissed from her job.

Coshocton Tribute, August 14, 1950 American B-26 bombers literally blasted "Seoul City Sue", counterpart of World War II's "Tokyo Rose", off the air with an attack on the Seoul radio transmitter. "Seoul City Sue" was about to broadcast when the B-26s attacked with 200 pound fragmentation bombs.

Coshocton Tribute, August 30, 1950 Oklahoman Thinks 'Seoul City Sue' Is Sister; Being Forced Into Broadcasting Holdenville, Okla. (UP) "Seoul City Sue" may be a missionary whom eastern Oklahoma Methodists sent to the Orient 20 years ago on funds raised from rummage sales and pie suppers. Mrs. L.F. Battles, wife of the New Model Community, Okla. school principal... Mrs. Battles said the last letter she received from her sister was written two days before the invasion.... She said her sister could not leave Seoul with other Americans because her Korean husband could not abandon his school for homeless boys. Mrs. Battles said her sister married Suhr, a Christian convert, in 1939, and later attempted unsuccessfully at San Francisco to obtain a United States passport for him. Mrs. Suhr went to Manila after leaving San Francisco and thence to Shanghai, were she met her husband. They were interned by the Japanese there for eight months early in World War II. "She has had a hard time since the end of the war against Japan" Mrs. Battles said. "She and her husband were broke when they went to Seoul. "Ann was teaching in the American school at Seoul recently, while her husband devoted all of his time to the home for indigent boys. Mrs. Battles said her sister was born in 1900 at Smithville, Ark. She made her first trip to Korea in 1930 after graduating from the Methodist Missionary college at Nashville, Tenn.

Dixon Telegraph, August 31, 1950 (caption) Holdenville, Tex(?)

The Chillicothe Constitution Tribute, March 8, 1952 By Bill Shinn Pusan, Korea, March 8. (AP) The informant...said she broadcast propaganda for the Communists because her Korean husband was a Red. Her first broadcast was heard the night of Aug. 7, 1950. Only a few days before the Allies recaptured Seoul, Anne and her husband, Suh Kyoon Chul, headed north on a truck, the informant said.

Stars & Stripes, March 11, 1952 Seoul City Sue Off Communist Airways By Bill Shin Pusan (AP) The melodious voice of Seoul City Sue... has disappeared from the airwaves, ... [the informant] said that she made propaganda broadcasts from Seoul when it was last held by the enemy because of "unfailing fidelity" to her Korean husband who had joined the Communist party.

Stars & Stripes, October 5, 1950 'Seoul City Sue' Was U.S. Missionary by Sam Jaffe Seoul, Oct. 4 (INS) The sister-in-law, Suh Kyu-hyun said in an exclusive interview that [she] left for North Korea with her husband four or five days before the Americans entered the city. She maintained stoutly through an interpreter: "Ann was forced to broadcast for the Communists."

Stars & Stripes, August 26, 1950 Army Hq Identifies 'Seoul City Sue' as American Woman Tokyo, Aug. 25 (UP) MacArthur issued a Korean release quoting the Nationalist Chinese Central News Agency saying [she] was the American wife of a Korean citizen. The release, which withheld her name, said she was teaching children of Chinese embassy officials in Seoul and had been secretary to a Methodist missionary there. They said her husband worked for a newspaper suspected of Communist leanings, but an investigation revealed signed papers saying he was not a Communist. The sources said this probably made him highly unpopular with the Korean Communist regime and his wife probably was forced to make the broadcasts.

mt pleasant news, 03 Oct 1950, Mt. Pleasant, Iowa "seoul city sue" remembered as a beautiful girl little rock, Ark (INS) - Mrs. Edith Spence of North Little Rock, Ark., said today she remembers Ann Wallis Suh, identified as "Seoul City Sue" as "one of the most beautiful girls I ever saw." Mrs. Spence said she last heard directly from Mrs. Suh in a letter from Shanghai, received near the close of World War II. She said Mrs. Suh then was teaching at the University of Shanghai and, in apparent reference to the war, wrote: "Edith, where will it all end?" Mrs. Spence continued: "I knew Ann as a girl. Her parents died when she was quite young. She was born in Jessup, Ark. She attended Hendrix College, a Methodist school, at Conway, Ark. Later, I understand she attended Scarritt College at Nashville, Tenn. "I believe she then moved to Cushman, Ark., to live with a brother-in-law." "Mrs. Spence said she recognized Mrs. Suh in a newspaper photograph recently as Ann Wallis.

The stars and stripes, european edition, Tuesday, August 22, 1950 Washington, aug 21 (ap) - details of the silencing of "seoul city sue" by an american bomber crew were related in a recorded broadcast from tokyo. maj wes mcpheron gave details of the previously disclosed incident. he said that lt bud galligher, of kerhonken, NY., was annoyed by propaganda poured out in english by a feminine voice from the radio station at communist-held seoul. with the aid of his navigator, lt ted kessler, of grants pass, ore., and his gunner, sgt oscar berg, of muscatine, iowa, galligher found the transmitting tower of "sue's station" outside seoul and damaged it enough to put her off the air.

the stars and stripes august 26, 1950 Army hq identifies "seoul city sue" as american woman


Scarritt papers:

Stephen Gateley, a research librarian at the Scarrett Bennett Center, was kind enough to forward me material related to Ann's time at Scarritt College. These materials have enabled me to eliminate several false leads, fill in most of the major blanks in her life before going on mission to Korea, and provided new leads for the years of her mission.

Scarritt College Catalogue, 1929-30
Senior college students
Wallis, Ann, Southeastern State Teacher's College, Oklahoma

Scarritt College Commencement program, June 1, 1930
Candidates for Bachelor of Arts:
Ann Wallis, Southeastern State Teacher's College, Oklahoma

Scarritt College Voice, Vol. IX, No. 1, February, 1937, pg 12
"Recent news from Ann Wallis ('30) tells of her new appointment at the Social Evangelistic Center at Seoul, Korea. She and Margaret Billingsly have rooms at the Center, but take their meals across the yards. The settlement is similar to our settlement houses, with its clinic, kindergarten, etc. Ann's particular task, among many others, is teaching in the night school and helping with the clubs and English classes during the day."

A photo from the same page shows Ann back at Scarritt during a missionary furlough. The intent is that the missionary return home to promote his or her mission among supporting churches. This might explain her presence on the S.S. Europa in 1935, if she is the passenger listed.


Scarritt papers, leads from:

Moore, Sadie Maude, 1899-1982, Papers, 1928-1982, http://www.pitts.emory.edu/Archives/text/mss059.html

Presbyterian Historical Society, United Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. Commission on Ecumenical Mission and Relations. Secretaries Files: Korea Mission, 1903-1972 [bulk 1911-1972]. This may include records from the Social Evangelistic Social (Seoul), but I get an XSLT stylesheet failure when I try to display the XML file: http://history.pcusa.org/finding/phs%20140.xml

A Google-translated PDF from the Taehwa Christian Social Welfare Center in Seoul includes a synopsis of the center's history. During 1921-1933 it was the Taehwa jagwan (Seoul Social Evangelistic Center), while during 1933-1953 it was the Taehwa sahoegwan (Tiawha Community Center). This may fit in with the timeline for crackdowns on missionary activity, described in [40].

Google Books notes the existance of:
The Social-Evangelistic Center, Seoul, Korea.
By Ellasue Canter Wagner
Published by Methodist Episcopal Church
I'll have to see if anyone has this on the stacks (yes, Union Theological Seminary, which lists it as a 15 page pamphlet). Ms. Wagner was well acquainted with Anna in Korea before and after WWII

Church growth in Korea ...
By Alfred Washington Wasson
Published by Rumford press, 1934
Original from the University of Wisconsin - Madison
Digitized May 9, 2008
175 pages
Mentions the site for the Social Evangelistic Center purchased in the heart of Seoul. Available at UC Berkeley, among others.